Charing Cross Station

The original station was built on the site of the Hungerford Market by the South Eastern Railway. Opened on  January 11th 1864. The station was designed by Sir John Hawkshaw, with a single span wrought iron roof arching over the six platforms. A large portion of roof collapsed on 5 December 1905 compromising part of the west wall. A bunch of men were employed in repairing, glazing and painting the section of roof which fell. The roof, girders and debris fell across four passenger trains standing in platforms 3, 4, 5 and 6 and all rail lines were blocked. The part of the western wall which fell crashed through the wall and roof of the neighboring Royal Avenue Theater in Northumberland Avenue which was being reconstructed at the time. Six lives were lost.

The Charing Cross Hotel, designed by Edward Middleton Barry, opened on 15 May 1865 and gave the station a frontage of the French Renaissance style.Following bomb damage in the Second World War, the hotel received extensive repairs in 1951. In general, this consisted of a new set of top floors.

Charing Cross Station is at home in a middle class district.
“Charing” comes from the Old English word cierran meaning to turn. This is a fitting place for the turning point in a story. This is also why Amy Levy used this station in her novel.

In Romance Of A Shop by Amy Levy Charing Cross Station is a turning point for phyllis’s health. As she plans to run away to go get married to Darrell she becomes sicker and can’t manage the journey. Charing cross station, although only briefly mentioned represents a larger picture of health and a turning point in the story.  It’s after this point that we find out just how sick Phyllis is. It’s also at this station that Phyllis herself turns around and returns to Darrell’s house.


Work Cited
“Booth Poverty Map (Charles Booth Online Archive).” Booth Poverty Map (Charles Booth Online Archive). Web. 3 Dec. 2015.
Levy, Amy.The Romance of a Shop. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2006. Print.
“The Charing Cross Hotel by E. M. Barry (1830-80).” The Charing Cross Hotel by E. M. Barry (1830-80). Web. 7 Dec. 2015.
“Victorian London.” Google Books. Web. 3 Dec. 2015.
“Victorian London – Transport – Railways, Above Ground – Stations – Charing Cross.” Victorian London – Transport – Railways, Above Ground – Stations – Charing Cross. Web. 3 Dec. 2015.

Notting Hill

Notting Hill is a district in west London. Since it was first developed in the 1820s, Notting Hill has had an association with artists and artistic culture. It’s an estate in the parish of Kensington, thickly covered with houses built between 1828 and 1848. Notting Hill is a comparatively cheap district for the area. Area’s within Notting Hill contain: Ladbroke Grove, Notting Hill Gate, Portobello Road, Westbourne Grove, and North Kensington. Also home to Pottery Lane which was a popular area for slumming. The mainly owned by the Ladbroke family, and in the 1820s James Weller Ladbroke began to undertake the development of the Ladbroke Estate. Many streets and areas with in Notting Hill hold the Landbroke name. Also home to Ladbroke Square which is a garden.  It is one of the largest private garden squares in London.

A good mix of poor, comfortable, and some well to do in the area. Many of the crimes in the area are theft and highway robbery. Including violent robberies and theft of animals. Nothing really made it seem like that dangerous of an area. The current condition of the area are tacky little houses tightly built on top of each other, many of the original buildings still standing. Now a very popular tourist attraction and a highly sought after living space.

Notting Hill is where Fanny and her husband settle down in Amy Levy’s Romance Of A Shop. The importance of the region is that it is not very much outside of Fanny’s current social status. Although Fanny is happily married she remains without children and in her original social class. Made up of gaudy little houses stacked side by side, Fanny lives in a “hideous little house”, dripping with medicorey. Notting Hill was also a haven for many artistic types, suiting for Fanny, having her photography background.


Works cited
Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 3 Dec. 2015.
Levy, Amy. The Romance of a Shop. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2006. Print.
“Slums and Slumming in Late-Victorian London.” Slums and Slumming in Late-Victorian London. Web. 7 Dec. 2015.
“The Proceedings of the Old Bailey.” Results. Web. 3 Dec. 2015.
“Victorian London – Districts – Areas – Notting Hill.” Victorian London – Districts – Areas – Notting Hill. Web. 3 Dec. 2015.

Covent Gardens

Covent Garden is a district in London on the eastern fringes of the West End. The district is divided by Long Acre. The south part contains the central square with most of the elegant buildings, theaters and entertainment facilities.

4Covent Garden Market designed by Charles Fowler, was thought to be the central market of London. It was also thought to be the first of its size and kind. “The building consists of three distinct ranges, united at the eastern extremity by a colonnade that supports a spacious terrace, or balustraded gallery, upon which have been erected two conservatories; these are furnished with the most rare and choice productions, native and exotic, of the flower garden, and are further enlivened by a fountain, that, by a mechanical contrivance, is regulated according to the wind. This is the grand front; and faces Great Russell Street. The central range, a large and lofty avenue, is occupied by the dealers in the more expensive fruits and vegetables, and in their several seasons exhibit a grand display of hothouse and other produce of surpassing beauty and most exquisite flavour.” “Victorian London – Markets – Covent Garden. Victorian London – Markets – Covent Garden. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
The northern side consists of shops with small dwellings. The southern side follows suit with the northern. It’s made up of vendors and small dwellings.
covent gardenCrimes committed in the area are mostly theft and larceny. However, there are a few murders documented. At first the market was solely a high class area, but as taverns became to spring up in the area the clientele base dropped.  Later on the area became a popular red light district where prostitution was a popular vice. There are reports of such behavior but little details on punishments or crime reports.
Mostly middle class and well to do in the area, some poor.
covent gardens povertyAfter leaving Sibyl in tears in chapter 7 Dorian leaves her not paying attention to where he was going. He ends up in Covent Garden.
“As the dawn was just breaking, he found himself close to Covent Garden.”
This shows he cares about Sybil, but is it Sybil or the loss of his love story he is missing? Most people realize the vain attitude in Dorian and understand that is the loss of his perfect love story and the dramatic change in Sybil’s acting that Dorian is confused and saddened by. Dorian finds himself confused and dazed by Sybil’s dramatic change while Sybil is confused by Dorian’s reaction. Both parties involved have now dealt with the blurring of the line between art and reality.
Covent Garden was the central market of London, and home to its opera house. For Dorian it’s the place that his vain and story like life meet reality. When offered cherries by a kind market boy Dorian was confused. “He thanked him, wondered why he refused to accept any money for them, and began to eat them listlessly. They had been plucked at midnight, and the coldness of the moon had entered into them.” This further tells of Dorian’s personality as kindness is foreign to him.

covent gardenCovent Garden is surrounded by theaters including Covent Garden Theater Royal opera house and is in close proximity to Lincoln Inn Fields which is located by the Royal Theater on High Holborn.

Works Cited
“Booth Poverty Map (Charles Booth Online Archive).” Booth Poverty Map (Charles Booth Online Archive). Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
“Covent Garden : Part 1 of 3.” Covent Garden : Part 1 of 3. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
“The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891)/Chapter 7.” – Wikisource, the Free Online Library. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
“The Proceedings of the Old Bailey.” Results. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
“Victorian London – Markets – Covent Garden.” Victorian London – Markets – Covent Garden. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.

Waterloo Bridge Road


Waterloo Bridge Rd. was the combined Waterloo Bridge and Waterloo Street. The road mentioned in “Man With A Twisted Lip”  which turns into Wellington Street is Waterloo Bridge Road. “The formation of Waterloo Bridge—which was 1completed and opened on the 18th of June, 1817—as may be expected, soon made a great alteration in the appearance of Southern London, especially in those parts lying between Blackfriars and Westminster Bridge Roads” (Lambeth). Its name commemorates the victory of the British, the Dutch and the Prussians at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. The approaching road and other various areas of London also share the name Waterloo in respect and honor.
The area was mostly middle class, at least on the main street. Waterloo Bridge Road was part of the parishes of St Andrew, St John, St Thomas [Lambeth]and Christ Churcmrsid2jpeg.plh (Charles Booth). Most of the crime committed in the area was theft and a handful of highway robberies that may have ended on the bridge itself. Overall the information on Waterloo Bridge Road is scarce. Most of it is about the surrounding area, the bridge and its southern approach have little influence to the surrounding areas.
Even in “Man With A Twisted Lip” the Road is but a way across the river.  “Passing down the Waterloo Bridge Road we crossed over the river, and dashing up Wellington Street…”(Doyle). The river divides London, it also helps divide class. This can be seen in the story as crossing the water is linked to crossing classes and lifestyles. This crossing of the bridge represents the crossing of themes in the story.
Waterloo Bridge Road is the southern approach to Waterloo Bridge. The Bridge approach was built on a piece of ground which for many years was part of Cuper’s (or Cupid’s) Garden. The road
“One of the earliest buildings in Waterloo Road was the Royal Universal Infirmary for Children. This institution was the successor of the Universal Dispensary for Sick and Indigent Children founded in 1816… The infirmary was built on land which was part of the triangular slip of ground bought by the Waterloo Bridge Company from Jesus College, Oxford, and assigned to the Duchy of Cornwall in exchange for ground given up to form the bridge approaches.”(Waterloo Road).

Works Cited
“Charles Booth Online Archive.” Search Survey Notebook Pages (Charles Booth Online Archive). Web. 16 Oct. 2015.

Doyle, Arthur Conan. The Man with the Twisted Lip. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

“Lambeth: Waterloo Road.” Lambeth: Waterloo Road. Web. 16 Oct. 2015.

‘Waterloo Road.’ Survey of London: Volume 23, Lambeth: South Bank and Vauxhall. Ed. Howard Roberts and Walter H Godfrey. London: London County Council, 1951. 25-31. British History Online. Web. 14 October 2015.

Oxford Street: “In Dull Brown”

Oxford Street  / Oxford circus
Oxford Street / Oxford circus

In the story “In Dull Brown” by Evelyn Sharp, Oxford Street plays a huge role. The story takes place among a few different streets, one of which is Oxford Street. Oxford Street was a shopping district in Victorian London. It was home to over two-hundred guilty theft charges over a span of 50 years.1 Located in the west end of London the street, other than the thefts, was a popular place. The street contains the Oxford/Regent circus which is also a detail in the story. From west to east the road crosses Regent Street, Berners Street and turns into New Oxford Street.

Oxford Street “…consisted almost uniformly of modest, irregular Georgian houses with shop fronts; only at the very west end close to Park Lane, where there was a scatter of substantial private houses and their outbuildings…”.2 This quote explains a little bit more about the importance of the dull brown dress Jean is originally wearing. The understated dress against the understated background would normally be unnoticed. Also it explains the comment, “That comes of the simple russet gown,” she thought ; “of course he thinks I am a little shop-girl.”

“They had reached the corner of Berners Street, and she came to a standstill”, the streets Jean and Tom are on and cross are important not only because of setting but also because of the historical aspects of their location. Jean mentions Tom walking to business which is relative to the shopping district. This area of London was not poverty stricken, was not industrial, instead it was a district of moderate wealth and fashion forward ideas. Buckingham Palace is accessible through Green Park, which Tom and Jean later meet in after winter passes.

Today, Oxford Street is still a shopping district and is home to some very famous and very expensive retailers such as Dior and Louis Vuitton.

Sharp, Evelyn. “In Dull Brown.” The Yellow Book 8 (January 1896): 181-200. The Yellow Nineties Online. Ed. Dennis Denisoff and Lorraine Janzen Kooistra. Ryerson University, 2012. Web. [Date of access].

  1. ‘Oxford Street: Introduction.’ Survey of London: Volume 40, the Grosvenor Estate in Mayfair, Part 2 (The Buildings). Ed. F H W Sheppard. London: London County Council, 1980. 171. British History Online. Web. 8 September 2015.
  2. 2. 115 guilty verdicts for theft 1800-1819, 292 guilty 1771 – 1819 -old Bailey proceedings, as found through

abortion in London

Abortions – opinions
“OF all the sins, physical and moral, against man and God, I know of none so utterly to be condemned as the very common one of the destruction of the child while yet in the womb of the mother. So utterly repugnant is it, that I can scarcely express the loathing with which I approach the subject” (Gardner, 1894).  This quote is one that we could easily hear about this topic today, anywhere in the world. I had not known before that abortion had been such a hot topic for such a long time. I will not tell you my own views as I want to remain unbiased, however, most people do have an opinion on the matter.  “Jardien * (* Jardien, “Etude Medico-1ega1e sur l’infanticide.) reports that in thirty-four cases of criminal abortion, where their history was known, twenty-two were followed, as a consequence, by death. In fifteen cases, necessarily produced by physicians, not one was fatal” (Gardner, 1894). The author of this article is clearly against abortion, even in extreme cases he offers a secondary choice. With this statistic though, she offers a scientific reason why. The maternal death rate for abortions was high. This statistic references both clinical abortion and criminal abortion. That is another interesting fact I learned about the topic. I didn’t know that the Mother could be charged as a criminal for non-clinical abortions. I also learned, before these other facts, a little bit of the history of abortions and infanticide. “At Athens it was particularly girls and those of the inferior classes that  were condemned to death. The ancient Norwegians followed the same custom with regard to females when there were too many in the same family.
On the coast of Guinea, in Peru, and among the Hottentots, in a case of twin pregnancy, the feeblest was put to death, and in preference, the girl, when the sexes were different.
In Madagascar ,and New Granada and Greenland, when the mother died during or after confinement, her living child was buried with her.
In case of famine or misery in China, New Holland, Kamtchatka, they killed their children, as they formerly did in Athens” (Gardner, 1894). I learned a lot about this very touchy subject. Although it has not changed my own views it has surly lent a much deeper connection to the recent events of two very separate time periods. To have a hot topic which spans so vastly over the years is fascinating to me. I find this important because it lends a feeling of how things have and haven’t changed in the world. It also gives insite into how many places treated and viewed children, women, and body rights.

Gardner, Augustus. “Victorian London – Sex – Abortion – Opinions.” Victorian    London – Sex – Abortion – Opinions. 1894. Web. 27 Aug. 2015.


Ashley Schluter Introduction

Hello, my name is Ashley Schluter. I am an Early Childhood Education major and a senior. Yesterday and today I learned some interesting things about 19th century London. I also had some of my previous knowledge reaffirmed. The knowledge I already had was about the class differences, the conditions and health hazards, and the poverty levels in London during the 19th century. The East End ended up being a terrible slum after the railroads were built and ticket prices lowered. Violence, poverty, and filth were popular residents of this part of the city. One of the new things I learned was about the divide between north and south London. I knew the Thebes river split the city but I didn’t realize it also segregated the population like it did. I think this separation is important when talking about  the uprising of London because without knowing how the lower or working class lived we really don’t get the full effect of how the upper class lived. Understandably the railroads are also a major part of London. In the time period they enabled people to travel for work and play which meant they didn’t have to live in the city. This point is important for talking about the suburbs and the separate classes. The working poor wouldn’t have had the money for train rides so they would remain in the city, where as the upper working class could afford to move out of the inner city and build connected yet separate homes and communities. I knew about the filth but I didn’t know about the efforts to clean it up. “Health scares and cholera epidemics in the 1850s paved the way for cleaner water; the Metropolis Management Act of 1855 shook up local government; and major works, such as drainage and slum clearance, were put in the hands of the Metropolitan Board of Works.” (robinson, 2011). These are just a few of the things I knew and learned about Victorian London.
Robinson, Bruce. “London: ‘A Modern Babylon'” BBC News. BBC, 11 Feb. 2011. Web. 25 Aug. 2015.