York Place, in accordance with Google maps, is the site of the “York Buildings” and is in close proximity to numerous venerated edifices. It neighbors the dynamic Charing Cross Station, scenic Victoria Embankment, the esteemed National Gallery and the most illustrious religious building in all of England, Westminster Abby. This exquisite expanse, as per Booth Online Achieves, consists of both middle-class and well-to-do residents. Further research on the topic in British History Online, in the article entitled “Hungerford Market and the site of Charing Cross Railway Station” espouses the notion that in 1670 the York Buildings Waterworks Company took possession of the York Buildings. By this time streets such as Hungerford Lane and Villiers Street; situated adjacent to York Place, were purchased by the New Hungerford Market Company and were recognized as a prominent marketplace for fish. The surrounding area was subsequently purchased by the Charing Cross Railway Company and afterward converted into Charing Cross Station(“Hungerford Market and the site of Charing Cross Railway Station”, British History Online). The Victorian Embankment, a series of eight formal botanical gardens was located behind the York Buildings. Located along the north ridge of the Thames River this reclaimed ridge was dedicated to the public, as a means of escaping the chaos and ills of the overcrowded city (“Victorian Embankment” –British Histories Online).
The York Buildings, situated behind York Place and intersecting at Duke and Buckingham Streets was strategically designed and erected with the intent of providing the burgeoning populous with a thoroughly modern infrastructure; one that supplied an abundance of water and efficiently removed toxic waste (“Victorian Embankment” –British Histories Online).
York Place is the location of the shared studio of Mr. Oakley and Frank Jermyn and doubles as the place where Frank works as an engraver (Levy, 89). Lucy and Frank journey to his studio with the intentions of photographing his “drapery” (Levy, 96-97). From “morning till night” over the next several days the women busy themselves, at the studio, by taking extensive photographs of the drapery as personally requested by Mr. Oakley (Levy, 98). This passage indicates to the reader that Mr. Oakley and Frank were enlightened. By hiring the two sisters, seemingly social rarities, the gentlemen pay homage to the women and prove themselves to be progressive thinkers. Subsequently, before sending his work to the Royal Academy Frank invites the sisters, Darrell and Lord Watergate to his studio in York Place to inspect his engravings. (Levy, 113-6). According to The Romance of A Shop, footnotes denote that the Royal Academy had been relocated to the National Gallery’s East Wing in 1868 (Levy, 133). Again, this information indicates to the reader that the sister’s abilities are treasured by men who are like-minded artists. Following Frank’s party, Lord Watergate and Darrell stay in York Place. During their time together Lord Watergate ponders whether the sisters will agree to honor him by preparing informative slides as an accompaniment to his lectures to be presented at the Royal Institution (Levy, 117). This augments the sister’s competence as scholarly women who possess both an astute sense for business and a keen awareness of art. In this way, the sisters are free to explore their freedoms by going outside of the boundaries of their shop and beyond the confines of their neighborhood. Amy Levy’s The Romance of A Shop critiques the rigid mores of Victorian London and explores the challenges embodied within this unyielding social system.
Levy, Amy, and Susan David Bernstein. The Romance of a Shop. Peterborough, Ont.:Broadview, 2006. Print.
‘Plate 31: York Watergate and York Buildings Waterworks in 1795.’ Survey of London: Volume18, St Martin-in-The-Fields II: the Strand. Ed. G H Gater and E P Wheeler. London:London County Council, 1937. 31. British History Online. Web. 16 December 2015.http://www.british-history
“Victorian Art Institutions: Academies, Schools, Galleries.” Victorian Art Institutions: Academies, Schools, Galleries. Web. 16 Dec. 2015.
According to Charles Booth Online Archive, Sussex Place was considered both an upper-middle and upper-class setting. Regrettably, there are few historical records denoting its’ illustrious historical past. Sussex Place is advantageously situated on the outskirts of Regent’s Park. Regent’s Park is renowned as the site of the Royal Botanic Society’s Gardens, the Zoological Garden, and the Toxophilite Society Grounds (Charles Booth Online Archive). In 1760, Cambridge established one of the first Botanic Gardens in the world; however, it is not the site of Regent’s Park. Furthermore, Regent’s Park held possession of the Toxophilite Society Grounds, a prestigious archery club made famous by the Prince of Wales and King George IV of England in 1780 (British History Online, “Sport, ancient and modern: Pastimes” ).
With this information in mind, Regent’s Park and Sussex Place were bothlikely occupied by the elite highbrow of the day. In contrast, the sisters of The Romance of A Shop by author Amy Levy, are young and gifted middle-class, socially independent women and proven to be astute in managing a photography studio. Incongruous to their proven record, women as owners and managers of businesses were not credited as being highly reputable. This outmoded mindset causes Fanny to state in chapter one, “[n]eed it come to that- to open a shop?” (Levy, 54).
Gertrude travels to the Watergate home, independent of a chaperone and “has no difficulty in finding Sussex Place.” She has been summoned to take the disease photo of Lord Watergate’s late wife in the practice known as “postmortem photography” (Levy, 85-87). Her public presence in London and her increased knowledge of urban life and surroundings enables her to find her way (86). She astutely goes on to describe the Watergate home as being “located mid-way between the terrace” and as having a “white curve of houses with columns, the cupolas, and the railed-in space of garden that fronted the Park” which vastly contrast her mourning gown and boots (86).
The significance of this inimitable location in the novel is socially relevant. Author Amy Levy superficially makes an argument that society views Flâneur, educated and independent women, as being socially inappropriate. Paradoxically, Levy underscores the significance of society placing emphasis on marriage and forewarns women that if they are “consumed” by men, they will surely die. Lady Watergate, as reflected upon by the sisters, died of “consumption” and her demise is compared to the departure of Phyllis. Similarly, Lady Watergate was a new woman like Phyllis. Lady Watergate is not viewed as being fully appreciative of her husband’s attention and his accomplishments. The depraved Phyllis mingles with married men and attempts a romantic tryst. Society seemingly is punishing both women for their “consumption” which can be defined as being consumed with being socially independent, obsessed with men and personal beauty. Phyllis dies an artistic death; however she is not immortalized. Lady Watergate experiences a slow and painful demise. Nevertheless, she is memorialized with a beautiful picture. (Levy, 84). For this reason, Phyllis narcissistically declares “what perfect features she has. Mrs. Maryon told us she was wicked, didn’t she? But I don’t know that it matters about being good when you care as beautiful as all that” (Levy, 88).
Levy, Amy, and Susan David Bernstein. The Romance of a Shop. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2006. Print.
‘Sport, ancient and modern: Pastimes.’ A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 2, General; Ashford, East Bedfont With Hatton, Feltham, Hampton With Hampton Wick, Hanworth, Laleham, Littleton. Ed. William Page. London: Victoria County History, 1911. 283-292. British History Online. Web. 14 December 2015. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/middx/vol2/pp283-292.
“The Artist at the Flower-Shows: Bewitched! (an Incident at the Royal Botanic Society’s Garden, Regent’s Park)” by George Housman Thomas(1824–68).” “The Artist at the Flower-Shows: Bewitched! (an Incident at the Royal Botanic Society’s Garden, Regent’s Park)” by George Housman Thomas(1824–68). Web. 16 Dec. 2015.
‘The University of Cambridge: The Botanic Garden.’ A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 3, the City and University of Cambridge. Ed. J P C Roach. London: Victoria County History, 1959. 324-325. British History Online. Web. 15 December 2015.
The Royal Academy of Arts in Burlington on Piccadilly is mentioned in chapter twelve of author Amy Levy’s The Romance of a Shop. Mr. Darrell, a painter and wealthy associate of the Royal Academy has grown fond of a beautiful young maiden, Phyllis, who works in a photography shop. He expressed his desire to paint a picture of her and rather than hanging it in “the profanum vulgus Burlington House” as he originally suggested, he preferred to hang it in his home as “it will show up better at his place” (133). According to The Latin Lexicon online source “profanum” and “vulgus” are Latin terms meaning an “unholy” object and vulgus refers to the state of being ordinary (Alexander). The book references “profanum vulgus, i.e., the vulgar rabble” and according to Merriam-Webster “rabble” refers to the “disorganized collection on things” or a low class of people who could be considered violent (The Romance of a Shop. 133) (The Merriam-Webster Dictionary).
The Charles Booth Online Archives states the Burlington House was situated in direct proximity to the “upper-middle class area and mostly consisted of inhabitants who are “comfortable others poor” and some “middle class” (Charles Booth Online Archives). Also, documented crimes in The Proceedings of Old Baily indicate that starting in the year 1837 and onward offenses in this area consisted of simple theft such as pickpocketing (Old Baily).
These statistics are extremely important to note. Mr. Darrell is considered to be wealthy and of the upper-middle class. He believes Burlington House is a place in which common people congregate to display art forms other than photography. Although The Burlington House is deemed as a world-renowned institution for displaying art, Mr. Darrell prefers not to have his painting of Phylis displayed there. He does not view the inhabitants of the area as being intellectually on his level or of the same socio-economic class as himself. Nevertheless, he perceives the painting of Phyllis in which he depicts a lower class maiden, an employee of a photography shop is not worthy of being exhibited there. To him, although he has captured the working girl’s true beauty he believes her persona would be diminished if her portrait were to be displayed in the gallery with the otherwise disorganized and commonplace collection of art pieces of the Royal Academy.
According to The Historical Eye in the article entitle Piccadilly to Regent Street: Then and Now 1896, the Burlington House is dedicated to the Royal Academy of Arts established in 1768, which hosts “painting and sculptures” by British artists (Rees). The British History Online in the article Burlington Arcade states the Italian Renaissance mansion was bequeathed to the Dukes of Devonshire. These high-ranking noblemen lived on Piccadilly and were distinguished in both rank and affluence. In 1854, the venerated house was sold to the British Crown. (Burlington Arcade. British Histories Online).
In the article Burlington House on Dictionary of Victorian London online, the building was partitioned into five collections that were called “The Society of Antiquaries,” “The Linnaean Society”, “The Royal Society of Chemistry”, “The Geological Society” and “The Royal Astronomical Society.” The Royal Academy of Arts, located on the same property, “held the annual exhibition of pictures” (Jackson).
According to Peter Cummingham, Hand-book of London located on Dictionary of Victorian London online; The Royal Academy of Arts was previously located on Trafalgar Square and then at Somerset House. The government expanded the Academy’s art collection and in 1866 chose to move it to Burlington House. The Academy was widely known as “a private society” but, its’ doors were that of a “school open to the public.”
Students selected to attend the program at the Academy were chosen based on their artistic ability. Discerning students were awarded yearly medals based on their astute distinction. Students could choose to study in one of the three branches of learning which included antiquity, living models, and painting. As Mogg’s New Picture of London and Visitor’s Guide to its’ Sights states, professors of the Royal Academy of Arts were known as highly esteemed artists in the fields of “painting, sculpture, architecture, [chemistry] and engravers” (Jackson). The article Pall Mall, South Side, Past Buildings: The Royal Academy in British Histories Online states that complimentary tuition was given to all students. Additionally, seasonal “lectures” were available to the general public, with summer being the prime time for lecturing on painting (Pall Mall, South Side, Past Buildings: The Royal Academy. The British Histories Online).
An exhibition was held yearly at the Royal Academy of Arts in which all artists could enter their creations. However, artistry could not consist of previously exhibited pieces, copies, vignette portraits and no “drawings without backgrounds” were to be entered (Mogg’s New Picture of London and Visitor’s Guide to its’ Sights . Jackson). Also, only art pieces that consisted of painting, sculptures, architect, engraved, seal-cut and medal pieces could be submitted. The proceeds collected from this exhibit went directly to funding the school and other charities (Pall Mall, South Side, Past Buildings: The Royal Academy. The British Histories Online).
This exhibition is referred to as being “one of the most interesting spectacles to an intelligent mind that the capital can boast” (Mogg’s New Picture of London and Visitor’s Guide to it Sights. Jackson). Professional artists were allowed to enter up to eight pieces of work. In contrast, “unprofessional artists” were permitted to enter only one piece of work that would then be presented to the council to be adjudicated. Charles Dickens in his Dickens’s Dictionary of London, states that the yearly exhibit was known as one of the “largest picture shows in the world” (Jackson).
Throughout my research, I could not find references to the practice of photography. Clearly, photography was not considered a legitimate art form. Therefore, a vignette or small portrait photograph was not accepted for submission to the contest. When Mr. Darrell decides not to give the painting of Phyllis to the Burlington House it is perhaps because he is acknowledging the art world does not recognize photography, Phyllis’s’ livelihood as a legitimate art and, in essence, would be rejecting her beauty and her abilities as a working woman and gifted artist.
The Burlington House and The Royal Academy are prominent institutions and lend much credibility to the surrounding area. As such, the region received world recognition for being the hub of esteemed intellect, art, and science. Consequently, the five societies were distinct foundations. They greatly enhanced the credibility of the humanity of the arts and sciences in London. In our class, we have debated the notion of photography being either an art form or science. Clearly, today we view photography as serving both fields. However, during the Victorian Era it was more widely known as science.
‘Burlington Arcade.’ Survey of London: Volumes 31 and 32, St James Westminster, Part 2. Ed. F
H W Sheppard. London: London County Council, 1963. 430-434. British History Online. Web. 26 October 2015. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-london/vols31-2/pt2/pp430-434.
Alexander, Keith. “Profanum.” The Latin Lexicon. Keith Alexander. Web. 31 Oct. 2015.http://latinlexicon.org/definition.php?p1=1013239&p2=p.
‘Burlington Arcade.’ Survey of London: Volumes 31 and 32, St James Westminster, Part 2. Ed. F .H W Sheppard. London: London County Council, 1963. 430-434. British History Online. Web. 26 October 2015. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-london/vols31-2/pt2/pp430-434.
Lee, Jackson. “Dictionary of Victorian London – Victorian History – 19th Century London –Social History.” Dictionary of Victorian London – Victorian History – 19th Century London – Social History. Dictionary of Victorian London. Web. 31 Oct. 2015.http://www.victorianlondon.org/index-2012.htm.
Jackson, Lee. “Dictionary of Victorian London”- “Victorian London – Entertainment and Recreation – Museums, Public Buildings and Galleries – Royal Academy of Arts.” Victorian London – Entertainment and Recreation – Museums, Public Buildings and Galleries – Royal Academy of Arts. Web. 31 Oct. 2015.http://www.victorianlondon.org/entertainment/royalacademy.htm.
Edgware Road, London, is the location of the illusory St. Monica’s Church in a short story entitled “Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: Scandal in Bohemia” (“Scandal in Bohemia”, 8). Written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Holmes is best known for his keen capacity to think logically, his perceptive ability to use forensic science, and his astute aptitude to alter his persona and then swiftly adapt to any disguise. And, true to his character’s persona, while dressed as a drunken out of work groom Holmes finds himself being haphazardly pulled into St. Monica’s Church a fictional church, to bear witness in the marriage of retired American opera singer Irene Adler and the handsome London lawyer Godfrey Norton.
According to Google Maps, Edgware Road is called Edgware Road Station and is located off Burne Street, in the East end of London, where the Salvation Army “Social Wing” is located. The surrounding area of Edgware Road consists of middle-class people who live on the fringes of society. These classes are both “mixed” and “poor,” as indicated by the red, purple and light blue indicators, according to “Charles Booth Online Archive: Booth Poverty Map and Modern Map.” According to the Victorian Web in the article “The Origin and Early Development of the Salvation Army in Victorian England”, the Social Wing of the Salvation Army, founded by William Booth, primarily concerned itself with both religious and social causes in an attempt to improve the lives of the poor souls living in poverty in the slums of London(The Victorian Web). The Methodist soldiers within god’s army targeted the poor in London’s East End. In a highly sophisticated militaristic style and through the emphasis of prayer, Salvation Army members sought to redeem the downtrodden by providing nourishing meals and thus redeem them from damnation. Events took place in streets, the homes of members and in churches.
Regarding the story, Edgware Road identifies two important themes that involve: distorting class structure and woman as powerful, intelligent and clever agents of change despite their social class. The importance of the Social Wing is emphasized through the different class structures around Edgware Road. This highlights two instances within the context of the story in which class structure is blurred. In the first instance, the astute Holmes points out that Irene and the King of Bohemia, who had a romantic liaison are on “very different level[s]” (“Scandal In Bohemia”,14). Furthermore, Holmes indicates that although the King of Bohemia is of a higher social class, Irene has the greater intellectual ability and, therefore, is superior to the King, who idealizes her for her cleverness. Holmes expounds upon the theory that a woman, regardless of her social standing, may be more resourceful and, therefore, more cunning than a man. In the second instance, Holmes refuses to take the King’s priceless ring and upon doing so turns his back towards the King, indicating a distortion in social classes. To Holmes, the status of the King or any other client is less significant than the captivating problem they present to him.
Edgware Road is an important location in the story entitled “Scandal in Bohemia” since it identifies St. Monica’s Church as the place where Irene Alder seeks solace and becomes an “honorable woman”. Irene knows having engaged in an affair with a man without the benefit of marriage is immoral. And, although she believes only the divine one knows the truth, she stealthily attempts to protect her image from social condemnation. She is a direct nemesis of the King of Bohemia.
Doyle, Arthur. “Sherlock Holmes and the Scandal in Bohemia.” 1 June 1891. Print.
Dr Diniejko, Andrzej. “The Origin and Early Development of the Salvation Army in Victorian England.” The Origin and Early Development of the Salvation Army in Victorian England. 10 Apr. 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.
In the article entitled, “Waterloo Place and Her Majesty’s Theatre” by Edward Walford, from the “British History”, Waterloo Place was as complex as Victorian life itself. The layout of Waterloo Place was designed by architect Mr. Nash. It intersects at Pall Mall and is conjoined with Regent Street. Around the year 1815 “low and mean houses” or “filthy dwellings” were demolished to create an area that would later come to be referred to as Waterloo Place and Lower Regent Street. Described as a “spacious” place in which to live and relax, Waterloo Place is perhaps most famous for being connected to Regent’s Park which is described as having “elegant villas, and as being encircled by rows of houses of noble elevation.” It is likely Waterloo Place was a highly appointed location. It had beautiful in architect, timeless design and befitted the upper class (Walford. “British Histories”).
The significance of Waterloo Place in the story “In Dull Brown” by writer Evelyn Sharp, taken from the book entitled The Yellow Book, is Sharp’s description of her “journey” on the omnibus. Sharp, who “is going to teach three children all sorts of things they don’t want to learn a bit”, identifies the stops along the route of the omnibus while in route to Waterloo Place, which includes Green Park and Piccadilly Circus Station. The adjoining areas were designed to accommodate the upper class (Sharp.185). Due in part to its unique configuration, Waterloo Place is what we would consider a “square”. The street and those that intersect it are well appointed with five statues and two large monuments. They include the “Guards Monument” and the “Duke of York” as situated at the end of Waterloo Place and the intersection of Carlton Garden. The five statues depict renowned British figures. They stand in quiet solitude and are: The Sir John Franklin Statue, The Burgoyne Statue, The Lord Lawrence Statue, The Lord Clyde Statue, and The Lord Napier of Magdala Statue (Victorian Google Maps). Waterloo Place is also well-known for the Athenaeum Club, an erudite association that is located across from The United Service Club and a bank. Sharp is likened herself to the setting of Waterloo Place. Although the historical significance of the statues is recorded in time, they stand for those who refuse to acknowledge their origins as insignificant details of history. Some individuals find them to be inconsequential and choose not to learn about them. And like the statues who stand in quiet solitude Sharp realizes that on her daily journeys to and from her teaching assignment it is acceptable for her to assume a posture of quiet solitude among the masses with whom she mingles.Sharp is likened herself to the setting of Waterloo Place. Although the historical significance of the statues is recorded in time, they stand for those who refuse to acknowledge their origins as insignificant details of history. Some individuals find them to be inconsequential and choose not to learn about them. And like the statues who stand in quiet solitude Sharp realizes that on her daily journeys to and from her teaching assignment it is acceptable for her to assume a posture of quiet solitude among the masses with whom she mingles.
The Athenaeum Club, which appears to the left, is located on the corner of Waterloo Place (Ward. “Victorian Web”). According to the “British Histories” in the article entitled “Pall Mall, South Side, Exiting Buildings: The United Service Club, The Athenaeum”, this scholarly club was established in 1815 and came to fruition in 1825. It was conceptualized by John Wilson Croker as a gathering place for individuals known for their intellectual contributions to British society in the areas of literature, science, artistic accomplishments and who valued patrons of these endeavors. Affiliates were best known for their: inherited prominence, distinguished social positions, and scholarly influence. The club: both in concept and reality was highly efficacious. Other like-minded organizations succeeded the Athenaeum Club and replicated it in principal. The United Service Club was a highly successful army and navy gentlemen’s club that serviced senior officers (“British Histories”).
‘Pall Mall, South Side, Existing Buildings: The United Service Club, The Athenaeum.’ Survey of
London: Volumes 29 and 30, St James Westminster, Part 1. Ed. F H W Sheppard. London: London County Council, 1960. 386-399. British History Online. Web. 3 September 2015. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-london/vols29-30/pt1/pp386-399.
Sharp, Evelyn. “In Dull Brown.” The Yellow Book 8 (January 1896): 181-200. The Yellow
Nineties Online.Ed. Dennis Denisoff and Lorraine Janzen Kooistra. Ryerson University,
Author Lee Jackson in the article “Ragged Schools” from “The Victorian Dictionary” applicably quotes Victorian author and social commentator Charles Dickens in regard to the social plight of London and the construct of the “Ragged School” system, in an editorial from London’s Daily News. Although London was viewed as the “capital city of the world” paradoxically it was “a vast hopeless nursery of ignorance, misery and vice: a breeding place for hulks and gaols.” “Ragged Schools” were nondenominational, funded by a variety of charities and other “benevolent individuals.” They were few and far between. Those compassionate individuals who committed themselves to this construct had the notion that working class men and woman could be “reclaimed” from the “wretch and filth” of London’s industrial complex. Their goal was to save future generations from similar plights. It is important to note that prior to this time all students paid a tuition fee for attending school and few could afford the luxury (Jackson).
In his article, Jackson further notes that in 1844 the first attempt to provide academic instruction to the working class poor of London’s East End was initiated by a “society called the Ragged School Union” and notes that immediately afterward “two hundred of these schools were opened.” Jackson utilizes the “Jurston Street School to illustrate a typical ‘Ragged School’.” It “opened on Sunday evenings,” had an “average yearly attendance of 250 children” and was serviced by “25 teachers.” Jackson again provides a superb example of how the system worked by introducing Mr. Ainslie, a former student of a school in Windsor. Accordingly, Ainslie “had himself been a bad and abandoned man, who was reclaimed, and who now sat there, with his dirty face, teaching and doing more good than thousands of other of ten times his capacity.” Clearly, London’s “Ragged School System” provided a free education to the East End’s working class children while enabling them to overcome the economic, social and political hardships of the industrial society in which they lived (Jackson).
Jackson, Lee. “Dictionary of Victorian London – Victorian History – 19th Century London –Social History.” Dictionary of Victorian London – Victorian History – 19th Century London – Social History. Yale University Press, 3 Oct. 2014. Web. 26 Aug. 2015.<http://www.victorianlondon.org/index-2012.htm>.
Hello, my name is Katelynn Vyas. Please call me Katie. I am an Early Childhood Education major, with a concentration in English and a euphoric senior. I am pleased to be a member of the “Virtually London” class here at SUNY New Paltz. Although I visited Westminster Abbey as a child, watched the changing of the guard at Buckingham Palace and toured the Tower of London, I remember little. However, with my newfound knowledge I intend one day soon to be a groundling at the Globe Theater, tour the birthplaces of British authors and afterward return to Piccadilly Circus in order to savor pasties once again.
From the reading, it is extremely interesting to note that throughout the history of London prosperity and change in the monarchy brought about hardship to its inhabitants (Robinson). Ironically, as an imperialistic nation the empire was known internationally for causing the social, economic, religious and political change in the nations it conquered. It is sad to learn Londoners also lived in extreme poverty, in utter filth and with daily threats of violence while the empire did little to improve the lives of its constituents. None the less, London became a thriving seaport with a growing population and a prosperous financial center (Robinson). It was clearly poised to experience the first industrial revolution in the world. The reading clearly states the Thames River was a geographical land mass that served to delineate the north from the south, the haves from the have-nots (Robinson). In the 1700’s the south became the area in which heavy industry was located and in which the working class poor were situated. Author and social commentator Charles Dickens wrote about poverty, disease, vice and the general lack of empathy of the monarchy toward the working class poor in 19th century England (Robinson). I am looking forward to walking through Adelphi, the location of Dickens’ lodgings and where David Copperfield lived (Perdue .Map 1). Virtually visiting London’s historical stomping grounds and places such as Covent Garden (Perdue. Map: D-6), Charing Cross (Perdue.Map: E-5), and the British Museum (Perdue.Map: B-5) will greatly enhance my understanding of Victorian London.
Perdue, David. “David Perdue’s Charles Dickens Page – Dickens’ London Map.” David Perdue’s Charles Dickens Page – Dickens’ London Map. Davd Perdue. Web. 26 Aug. 2015.
Robinson, Bruce. “London: ‘A Modern Babylon’” BBC News. BBC, 11 Feb. 2011. Web. 25 Aug. 2015.
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